به فروشگاه اینترنتی انتشارات گیوا خوش آمدید
lnn 0vation and technology
For many of today’s organizations, competitive advantages are becoming more and more temporary and new ones therefore have to be developed (Giesen, Riddleberger, Christner, Bell, 2010; McGrath, 2013; Volberda et al., 2011). Developments such as shorter product life cycles, the convergence of technologies and industries, increases in the number of low-cost competitors, and changing customer preferences create dramatic changes in the economy (Govindarajan and Trimble, 2005; Smith, Binns, Tushman, 2010; Teece, 2007). Such trends change the competitive game: they make it more difficult for firms to differentiate themselves (Casadesus-Masanell and Ricart, 2010; Prahalad and Ramaswamy, 2004), and they may reduce the life expectancy of incumbents (Casadesus-Masanell and Ricart, 2011). The expectation is that such changes will become more extensive, and will take place more frequently and more rapidly in the near future (Giesen et al., 2010; Smith et al., 2010). Past success is no guarantee of success today (Venkatraman and Henderson, 2008; Teece, 2010), nor does success today guarantee future success (Govindarajan and Trimble, 2011).